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What is Article 7? - POLITIC

Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union is a procedure in the treaties of the European Union (EU) to suspend certain rights from a member state.While rights can be suspended, there is no mechanism to expel a member. The procedure is covered by TEU Article 7.It would be enacted where the EU identifies a member persistently breaching the EU's founding values (respect for human dignity, freedom. EU member states must now decide by a two-thirds majority whether they agree with the Commission's recommendation to trigger Article 7. If agreed, Poland could see its voting rights suspended European Commission - Press Release details page - European Commission - Press release Brussels, 24 September 2018 . Today, the European Commission decided to refer Poland to the Court of Justice of the EU due to the violations of the principle of judicial independence created by the new Polish Law on the Supreme Court, and to ask th Article 7, often dubbed the nuclear option, is the EU's punishment clause, allowing it to discipline member states when there is a clear risk of a serious breach of the bloc's core. If the EU is concerned that countries such as Hungary and Poland are not respecting EU values, it has a legal mechanism it could trigger. Find out about Article 7 of the Treaty of the EU

MEPs back triggering Article 7 against Poland - POLITIC

The European Commission said on Monday (13 May) that Romania is close to being hit with Article 7 of the EU treaties, the heaviest punishment for a member state deviating from rule of law. The objective of the rule of law framework is to prevent emerging threats to the rule of law to escalate to the point where the Commission has to trigger the mechanisms of Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). This is done through dialogue with the EU country concerned. Process. The framework establishes a three-stage process. They are Poland becomes first in EU history to face sanctions. Timmermans said Poland has depicted him as a 'lone madman' (Photo: ec.europa.eu) By Andrew Rettman. Brussels, 20. Dec 2017, 16:16. The European Commission has triggered an unprecedented sanctions procedure against Poland, prompting an immediate backlash. It's with a heavy heart that we've decided to trigger article 7 point 1 [of the EU. Article 7 TEU aims at ensuring that all EU countries respect the common values of the EU, including the rule of law. The preventive mechanism of Article 7(1) TEU can be activated only in case of a 'clear risk of a serious breach' and the sanctioning mechanism of Article 7(2) TEU only in case of a 'serious and persistent breach by a Member State' of the values set out in Article 2. The.

What is Article 7? Will the EU force Poland out? World

Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union - Wikipedi

EU Commission sets red lines for Poland on Article 7. Timmermans said a hand is still extended to Warsaw for dialogue. (Photo: European Commission) By Eszter Zalan. Brussels, 26. Jul 2017, 14:52. The Article 7 sanction procedure will be triggered by the European Commission against Poland if Warsaw fails to address the concerns over the judicial reforms or starts firing Supreme Court judges. The EU has implemented a new rule of law procedure that further raises the threshold for using Article 7. Sometimes termed the pre-Article 7 procedure, the mechanism follows a three-step process of assessment, recommendation, and monitoring by the European Commission. If this lengthy process fails in reforming the member state, only then. Writing at the end of 2019 it must be clear that art. 7 TEU is not a viable political option at all. However, the Treaties do contain legal mechanisms to enforce the rule of law against the member states. Art. 7 is not, and must not, be the center of the rule of law world in the EU. Poland's refusal to obey the Court's judgments and its readiness to do everything possible to circumvent it. Even if he loses the Article 7 vote, Orban is unlikely to back away from his most noxious laws, just as Poland's PiS has kept up its campaign to eviscerate the country's judiciary. If Poland. In a resolution adopted in March 2018, the European Parliament agreed with the Commission on the risks to the rule of law in Poland. According to Article 7 of the Treaty, following these requests, the Council may determine that there is a clear risk of a serious breach of EU values in the concerned countries. Before doing so, ministers shall.

The European Commission on Wednesday took the unprecedented step of triggering Article 7 of the EU treaties against Poland. The draconian step comes as the EU accuses Poland of undermining. Die EU will ein Sanktionsverfahren gegen Polen wegen Gefährdung von Grundwerten der Europäischen Union einleiten. Die Kommission aktivierte dafür den Artikel 7 der EU-Verträge Background. Last December and for the very first time, the European Commission activated a provision of the European Treaties (Article 7 TEU) in relation to the rule of law situation in Poland Incorporated into EU law by the Treaty of Amsterdam, Article 7 TEU is considered to have been both a gesture prompted by the future wave of EU enlargement and an attempt to tackle the discrepancy between the democratic model promoted by the EU in its external relations and its modest capacity to intervene whenever democratic values are at risk of being violated within one of its Member States Running the rule over Article 7. It is the strongest punitive measure the EU has against its member states: Article 7. Since disciplinary measures were triggered against Poland for the first time.

Hungary and Poland hit out at Brussels amid immigrationUniform Unit Insignia of the Polish Army in Exile - 1939

Explore our special collection of books & journals in support of Europe Day. Read an exclusive blog by the editors of the European Journal for Philosophy of Scienc Poland has been a member state of the European Union since 1 May 2004, with the Treaty of Accession 2003 signed on 16 April 2003 in Athens as the legal basis for Poland's accession to the EU. The actual process of integrating Poland into the EU began with Poland's application for membership in Athens on 8 April 1994, and then the confirmation of the application by all member states in Essen. The Article 7 procedure could theoretically lead to Poland losing its EU voting rights. Poland's ally Hungary has vowed to block such a move, but the procedure is still embarrassing for Warsaw.

European Commission triggers Article 7 against Poland

  1. The EU is upset with Poland because it doesn't uphold European Values. In response, the EU threatens Article 7. Background. Article 2 of EU treaty demands countries in the EU Promote and Safeguard European Values Article 7 is a sanctions procedure that the EU can impose on countries the EU deems to have violated Article 2. Article 7 has never been used
  2. Asked if this could mean that Hungary would veto the invocation of Article 7 against Poland, Semjén said Yes. The resolution submitted by the European People's Party, the Socialists and Democrats, ALDE liberals, the greens and the radical left EP groups was adopted by the European Parliament at its plenary session with 438 votes in favour, 152 against and 71 abstentions earlier in the.
  3. But if and when the Article 7 process against Poland reaches the European Council, it will undoubtedly be blocked by Mr. Orbán's veto, just as the Article 7 process against Hungary will, if it reaches the European Council, be blocked by Mr. Kaczyński's veto. The EU is, as Article 2 proclaims, a union of democratic states. But unfortunately, in portions of central and eastern Europe, it.

EU's Katainen says Article 7 procedure against Poland has had little impact . 1 Min Read. European Commission Vice-President and commissioner for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness Jyrki. The EU Commission started the process of enacting Article 7.1 against Poland over Poland's Judicial Reforms that would put Ministers in charge of the appointment of Poland's Judges Article 7 allows the EU to suspend a Member State should it deemed to be in violation of Rights enshrined in Article 2 and comes in two parts (v) Should Poland fail to comply with the Council's recommendations within the foreseen three-month deadline post the adoption of the Council's Article 7(1) decision, one would then expect this problem to be escalated to the European Council by the end of December 2018, but this would not be an automatic consequence of Poland's failure to comply with any eventual Article 7(1) decision by. But since Article 7 requires a four-fifths majority to be invoked, EU members allied with Poland, most notably Hungary, may block the decision in the European Council. 'Decision made' Still, the Polish government has been repeatedly and strongly condemned for its legal reforms, which limit judges' independence and allow politicians to fire and hire judges

European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release

  1. Such powers - set out in Article 7 of the Treaty of the EU - have been in place since 1997 but have never been deployed against any member state. They can be invoked by a qualified majority of.
  2. ed that the rule of law in Poland is under threat, in December EU officials triggered Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union, which refers to a clear risk of a serious breach.
  3. European Commission triggers Article 7 against Poland. PR dla Zagranicy Paweł Kononczuk 20.12.2017 13:10 The European Commission on Wednesday took the unprecedented step of triggering Article 7 of the EU Treaty against Poland, stepping up pressure on Warsaw over controversial changes to the judicial system by the country's ruling conservatives. Photo: Activedia/pixabay/CC0 Creative Commons.
  4. The issuing of a formal warning to Poland has been recommended to the member states under the first clause of an, until now, unused article 7 procedure, which is regarded as a nuclear option in EU.
  5. The intensity and repeated nature of Poland's ruling party attacks on the most basic tenets of the rule of law are unprecedentedly aggressive and in obvious breach of the Polish Constitution, which in our view warrants the Commission's action (this is not to say that Article 7(1) should not also be activated against Hungary as two of the present authors previously argued in this 2016 article)
  6. A European Commission deadline for Poland to abide by Article 7 expired on March 20, opening the door for Warsaw to lose it voting rights in the European Council as well as billions of euros in EU funding. Poland's ruling conservative Law and Justice party made clear on March 20 that it has no int

As noted by Kochenov and Pech, Article 7 'already implicitly empowers the Commission to investigate any potential risk of a serious breach of the EU's values by giving it the competence to submit a reasoned proposal to the Council should the Commission be of the view that Article 7 TEU ought to be triggered on this basis' with the Commission saying explicitly as much 'in 2003 in its. Article 7 of the Treaty of the EU allows it to discipline a state when there is a clear risk of a serious breach of the bloc's values. In the worst case, a country's voting rights can be. Poland believes that the rule of law is one of the fundamental values on which the European Union is founded. Like other Member States and EU institutions, we attach much importance to its promotion, protection and defense. Drawing upon our experience from Article 7 TEU procedure, we hereby present our first reflections on the Commission's Communication. GENERAL REMARKS • Existing rule of. Though the case of Poland has illustrated the ineffectiveness of this 'pre-Article 7 procedure' in preventing the emergence of a systemic threat to the rule of law - as testified by several Opinions of the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe indicating that instead threats to the rule of law in Poland escalated over the past two years, the European Commission's subsequent.

EU takes unprecedented first step towards sanctions against Poland to stop drift towards authoritarianism. European Commission recommends triggering of Article 7. The Article 7 procedure identifies a persistent breach of the EU's founding values by a Member State; it can lead to the suspension of certain rights of the Member State. The procedure against Poland was opened by the Commission on 20 December 2017. The procedure against Hungary was initiated by the European Parliament on 12 September 2018. Since then, the Council has been dealing with the.

of the European Union. Two Member States, Hungary and Poland, are working hard, day and night, to undermine democracy, the Rule of Law and the protection of fundamental rights, i.e. the foundational values of the Union. The claims that EU law should not intervene are irresponsible and, ultimately, illegal. Keywords Rule of Law, EU law, values, Article 7, enforcement, Hungary, Poland . Author. The European Commission on Wednesday took the unprecedented step of triggering Article 7 of the EU Treaty against Poland, stepping up pressure on Warsaw over controversial changes to the judicial system by the country's ruling conservatives, radiopolsha.pl reported. Thus, the European Commissioners supported the proposal of the Vice-President of the European Commission, Frans Timmermans Article 7 is considered by many to be the nuclear option for the EU, which is probably why it has never been triggered. Even if the significant hurdles for activating the procedures could be. It later became Article 7 of the current treaty, with three stages: Under paragraph 1, four-fifths of the EU's members can determine in the Council of Ministers that there is a clear risk of a serious breach by a Member State of the values referred to in Article 2, based on a reasoned proposal by one-third of the member states, the parliament, or the commission. Under paragraph 2, the. The EU opened up Article 7 charges against Poland for having non-EU values. Poland is a serious risk to leave the EU. Article seven is a charge against a country for having non-European values

EU Commission vice-president Frans Timmermans said the commission was 'very close' to triggering Article 7, which would remove Poland's voting rights. Poland's reforms would, Timmermans. The European Commission has suggested the EU Council to trigger Article 7 of the Lisbon Treaty which could pave the way for sanctions against Poland in order to protect the rule of law Sanctions could include Poland losing billions of euros of EU aid, R reports. Article 7's sanctioning mechanism also allows for a so-called nuclear option - a suspension of Poland.

Guide analyses and sums up the case-law under Article 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights (hereafter ^the Convention _ or ^the European Convention _). Readers will find herein the key principles in this area and the relevant precedents. The case-law cited has been selected among the leading, major, and/or recent judgments and decisions.* The Court [s judgments and decisions serve not. Under the terms of the so-called nuclear option of article 7 of the treaties, the procedure could ultimately result in Poland losing its EU voting rights, although Hungary's rightwing. EU's Article 7 ULTIMATUM to Poland: We'll strip you of your voting rights if reforms go on THE European Union is threatening to punish Poland and suspend its rights in a row over major reforms. Such powers - set out in Article 7 of the Treaty of the EU - have been in place since 1997 but have never been deployed against any member state. They can be invoked by a qualified majority of member states so any objections by Poland's ally Hungary would be overcome if other countries decide to press ahead with the warning

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What is 'Article 7' and why was it triggered against Poland

The European Commission should pursue enforcement action against the government of Poland under the Article 7 of the EU treaty, as the government continues to undermine the rule of law, Amnesty. At the end of December, in a major escalation of a conflict with Poland that has been rumbling on for the past two years, the European Commission recommended triggering the so-called Article 7 procedure, the first ever against an EU member state. This followed its criticisms of the Polish government - led, since autumn 2015, by the right-wing Law and Justice (PiS) party - as posing a. Poland is a serious risk to leave the EU The EU has a 'nuclear' option, we are told: Article 7 TEU, which cannot really be activated: the fallout would be too terrible and the hurdles for starting the procedure are too insurmountable Article 7.1: The mechanism begins with a proposal to find a Clear Risk of Serious Breach of EU values either by the Commission, the Parliament or one-third of.

Rule of law concerns: how the EU can act (infographic

  1. e whether Poland is at a clear risk of a serious breach of EU values. MEPs express their concerns regarding the rule of law in Poland, the separation of powers, the independence of the judiciary and fundamental rights. Statements by Frans TIMMERMANS, First.
  2. Article 7 TEU appears to provide the Council with tools with which they can restrain EU Member States currently exhibiting authoritarian tendencies. However, due to procedural limitations, Article 7 TEU is, in the present formulation, ineffective. Relying on such provisions against Poland will not likely produce any significant effects. This is.
  3. The only other occasion the EU has formally resorted to Article 7 is over Poland, where there's been an ongoing dispute with its authorities over judicial reforms - but there has been no.
  4. Poland opted for Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme (EEO) to fulfil Article 7 of Energy Efficiency Directive (EED). Polish EEOs has been in place only for 5 years. Within ENSPOL project Polish EEO scheme has been analysed along with status quo of Poland by use of specific indicators which describe polish capability to achieve targets of EED within both existing EEOs and further design of EEO.
  5. Nevertheless, irrespective of the final decision concerning the Article 7 procedure, one thing already seemed clear in September 2017: the existing provisions of the rule-of-law procedure have proved ineffective in the case of Poland. The rule of law in Poland has clearly been breached; this is something that the opinion of the Venice Commission alone states clearly enough. Yet, the EU's.
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Article 7 - EURACTIV

Rule of law framework European Commissio

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Through Article 7, yes. However, as the standoff escalates, the EU is separately considering limiting access to development funds in the post-2020 budget for countries that disrespect the bloc's. The European Union has triggered Article 7 against Poland, a procedure that could result in sanctions targeting Warsaw. The EU says Poland has violated democratic values with proposed judiciary reform However, the invocation of Article 7 in Poland demonstrates the EU's determination to adopt a stronger and more effective stance towards these issues. The outcome of this use of Article 7 will likely be unclear for some time. It is possible that the EU's reliance on consensus may once again prevent this action taking place if other member states, such as Hungary, choose to defend the. The EU is upset with Poland because it doesn't uphold European Values. In response, the EU threatens Article 7. Background. Article 2 of EU treaty demands countries in the EU Promote and.

Poland becomes first in EU history to face sanction

  1. The Polish delegation stressed that since the use of Article 7(1) TEU set a precedent in the EU, procedural aspects were of great importance. The ongoing dialogue was a sensitive issue in Poland and the EU. At this stage, the Council was responsible for taking over the process, which set a precedent for the future. The process and its outcome were now exclusively the responsibility of the.
  2. Poland might be deprived of the right to vote and could suffer financial consequences. In the current EU budget, the country is the largest beneficiary of EU structural funds — 82.5 billion euros. Konrad Szymański, the secretary of state for European Affairs, said that Article 7 is not a sanction-triggering procedure
  3. It is highly unlikely that the EU will push Poland, the strongest Eastern European member state, over the edge less than six months after the Brexit debacle. Regardless of what the EU officials or the mainstream media say, Poland is in a much stronger position than the eurocrats sitting in Brussels. Poland can survive as a nation state outside the EU, but Brussels can't afford to lose.
  4. The 56-year-old insisted that use of Article 7 against Poland — which could see the country stripped of its EU voting rights but still subject to the bloc's decrees — is a necessary response to the conservative Law and Justice Party government's attempts to reform what it sees as a corrupt judicial system.. Timmermans alleges these reforms represent a serious breach of the rule of.
  5. ation of a 'clear risk of a serious breach' of EU values
  6. Article 7(1) of the Treaty of the European Union allows the European Council to issue a warning to member states where there is a clear risk of a serious breach of the respect for the rule of law and human rights. On 18 July, Amnesty International delivered a public statement on the proposed amendments to the judiciary in Poland. 19 July 201

But Mr Timmermans said that Article 7 could be revoked if Poland addressed the points within the three-month period. The sanctions could lead to the suspension of Poland's voting rights at EU summits Poland has irked the EU because of judicial reforms the EU does not agree with, and also because Poland (along with Hungary and the Czech republic) refuses to accept migrants. Germany and France Back Article 7 Proceeding

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The resolutions cite risks that Hungary may seriously violate EU basic values, and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) has been asked to prepare a report on Hungary with a view to holding an EP vote on launching the first steps of Article 7 which suspends voting rights The use of Article 7, for the first time in EC history, came in response to a clear risk of a serious breach of the rule of law in Poland over changes that the EC believed threatened judicial independence. This surprising decision has led to some misunderstandings. The EU's reaction is a direct consequence of two years of Polish government policies that have damaged the rule of law. At. The triggering of Article 7 has been brought about by a vote to do so, made by Poland's fellow Members of the European Parliament. Many posters here seem to be quite confused about how the EU works. For example I'm Irish and the Irish MEPs who are elected by the Irish people, all voted to trigger Article 7. So it's the other countries who will be depriving Poland of their voting rights, if it.

EU takes on fake news EU commissioner for digital economy, Mariya Gabriel, announced plans to bring together a panel of experts, including members of academia and civil society, that will devise Navigation. Home page; About; Write for us; de; en; es; fr; it; nl; pl; Current Affairs & Policy. This Week in Europe: European Pillar of Social Rights, Article 7 on Poland and EU funds fraud in. Poland: European Commission invokes Article 7 on concerns over rule of law. January 8, 2018. On 20 December, the European Commission invoked Article 7 of the EU Treaty against Poland over controversial changes to Poland's judicial system. The move, an unprecedented disciplinary measure, comes after months of clashes between the two sides. The Commission holds that recently-approved reforms. Poland appeals to EU 'food security' for more money EUobserver.com 06:21 Relatively well placed to tackle the corona shock FXstreet 06:09 Lewandowski urges Bayern to buy Leroy Sane People's Daily 03:1

Article 7 also provides that the European Council, acting by unanimity on a proposal by the European Commission, may determine the existence of a serious and persistent breach by a Member State of fundamental values of the EU. Only after this step is completed, the Member States, acting by a qualified majority, may decide to suspend a given state's rights deriving from the treaties. The EU has been unable to prevent democratic backsliding in Hungary and Poland for three reasons. Firstly, its legal instruments (under Article 7) have failed to prevent sovereignty from prevailing over the rule of law. Secondly, party cooperation within umbrella groups such as the European People's Party has protected Orbán from open criticism. Thirdly, member states recognise that. Tuesday is the last day Poland has to respond to Commission demands that it restore the rule of law or face proceedings under Article 7. But according to Polish reports, it has no intention of changing its laws Poland: EU threat to trigger Article 7 a positive step. Following the news that the European Union has threatened to trigger Article 7 against Poland if currently tabled judicial reforms are passed into law, Iverna McGowan Director of Amnesty International's European Institutions Office said: Triggering Article 7 would be an unprecedented move, and the strong message sent by the EU today.

Citing Hungary's anti-immigration policies and concerns about media suppression, the European Parliament voted on Wednesday to invoke the provision, known as the 'nuclear option,' which is applied when there is a clear risk of a serious breach of EU values by one of the member states.. Voting against its own interests. Implementing Article 7 allows for sanctions to be imposed on Budapest. MEPs welcome EU decision to trigger article 7 procedure against Poland. Written by Martin Banks and Julie Levy-Abegnoli on 20 December 2017 in News. News . MEPs have welcomed the European Commission's decision to open the rarely-used 'article 7' procedure against Poland. On Wednesday, the Commission formally launched unprecedented disciplinary measures against Poland, saying its planned. EU triggers Article 7 after several warnings about Poland's politicization of its courts The Associated Press · Posted: Dec 20, 2017 1:16 PM ET | Last Updated: December 20, 201

The European Union Triggers Article 7 Against Poland

In its stand-off with Poland, the European Commission's initial weapon of choice was the Article 7 procedure. But as the fight has dragged on, it has become clear that this approach has reached. Never-Before-Used Article 7 Evoked: EU Launches Legal Action Against Poland; Never-Before-Used Article 7 Evoked: EU Launches Legal Action Against Poland Written by @Eubulletin | Monday, July 31st, 2017 @Eubulletin; Monday, July 31st, 2017; 0 0. Over the weekend, the European Commission launched legal action against Poland's conservative government over the controversial new law that Warsaw. VoteWatch Europe: Commission decision to activate Article 7 (1) TEU as regards the situation in Poland - Motions for resolutions, For: 422, Against:147, Abstentions: 48 . Become a VoteWatch Europe supporter. VoteWatch Europe is a small, independent not-for-profit organisation. Our goal is to promote better insight into EU politics by making information on the decision-making process of the. PDF | On Jul 1, 2016, Bojan Bugaric and others published Protecting democracy inside the EU: on article 7 TEU and the Hungarian turn to authoritarianism | Find, read and cite all the research you. Article 7 is a multistep process. First, the European Parliament, the European Commission, or one-third of the member states can propose that there is a 'clear risk of a serious breach' of the.

Ultimately it would be up to a ruling by the ECJ to decide if Poland is in breach of article 2 as it is EU law, not the Council or the Commission otherwise the EU executive is determining EU law which is frankly bizarre as this appears to be what Poland is accused of by appointing judges. Interestingly with ECJ judges each member state nominates one and they have to be ratified by all member. The first vote under Article 7 will be a decision whether there is a 'clear risk of a serious breach' of the rule of law in Poland. This requires the support of a four-fifths majority of member states, which means that six states (not counting Poland) voting no or abstaining is sufficient to block the decision. Hungary has promised to veto any subsequent vote to determine an actual breach. However when its efforts fell on deaf ears, in December 2017 the Commission proposed to activate the Article 7 of the EU treaty against Poland and then in January 2018 Members of the European Parliament voted by a large majority in favor of urging the EU to put Poland on the path toward sanctions for breaching the bloc's laws by passing constitutional reforms that undermine the independence.

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The European Commission is set to trigger a nuclear option against Poland, a member state whose right-wing, populist government has pushed through judicial reforms that are seen, both abroad. What does France's invocation of Article 42.7 - the EU's mutual defence provision - mean for the EU and its member states. On Tuesday 17 November, France formally invoked Article 42.7 of the Treaty of European Union. ECFR experts explain what this means. What is Article 42.7? Article 42.7 is the mutual defence clause of the Treaty of the European Union. It derives from the Article 5 of the.

For the first time, the EC has triggered Article 7 which is regarded as a nuclear option in the EU affairs, against Poland over a judicial reform dispute, saying that there is a clear risk of a. The EU launched action against Poland under Article 7 of the of the EU treaty on the same day. In December 2017, the EC launched the EU Treaty's Article 7 rule-of-law procedure against Poland over justice reforms which in its opinion infringed on the independence of courts, including changes in retirement rules for Supreme Court judges. The procedure could potentially lead to sanctions for. Poland slams EU Article 7 decision as essentially political Source: Xinhua 2017-12-20 23:08:17 Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki arrives at EU headquarters for an EU Summit in Brussels, Belgium, Dec. 14, 2017. (Xinhua/Ye Pingfan) WARSAW, Dec. 20 (Xinhua) -- Poland on Wednesday regretted the European Commission decision to launch Article 7, saying the Commission's decision is. DGD 2C EN Council of the European Union Brussels, 22 December 2017 REASONED PROPOSAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH ARTICLE 7(1) OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION REGARDING THE RULE OF LAW IN POLAND Proposal for a COUNCIL DECISION on the determination of a clear risk of a serious breach by the Republic of Poland of the rule of law . EN 1 EN . EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM 1. INTRODUCTION (1) The European Union.

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